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Technical Principles and Functions of Gene Sequencing

Technical Principles and Functions of Gene Sequencing

Gene sequencing is a new type of genetic testing technology, which can analyze and determine the full sequence of genes from blood or saliva, predict the possibility of suffering from various diseases, and the behavioral characteristics and behavior of individuals are reasonable. Genome sequencing technology can lock the genes of individual diseases, and prevent and treat them in advance.

Products and technologies related to gene sequencing have evolved from laboratory research to clinical use. It can be said that gene sequencing technology is the next technology that will change the world.

1. Principles of genome sequencing technology

Since the early 1990s, the academic community has been involved in the "Human Genome Project", and the traditional sequencing method is to use optical sequencing technology. Four different bases are marked with fluorescent lights of different colors, and then a laser light source is used to capture the fluorescent signals to obtain the sequence information of the gene to be tested.

In the latest gene sequencer, the chip replaces the traditional laser lens, fluorescent dye, etc., and the chip is the sequencer. Through semiconductor sensors, the instrument directly detects the ion flow generated during DNA replication. When the reagents enter the chip through the integrated fluid channel, the reaction wells densely distributed on the chip immediately become millions of micro-reaction systems.

This combination of technologies enables researchers to obtain genetic information in as little as 2 hours. With traditional optical sequencing technology, it takes weeks or even months to get the results, and at the same time, the cost of a test is reduced to as low as $1,000.

2. Main functions of genome sequencing

Gene sequencing is just one of the methods of genetic testing, also known as gene spectrum sequencing, which is an internationally recognized standard for genetic testing. Genetic sequencing is also widely known as noninvasive prenatal genetic testing for Down syndrome screening. It only needs to collect the peripheral blood of pregnant women, sequence the free DNA in the blood (including fetal free DNA), and conduct biological analysis on the sequencing results, so as to determine whether the fetus suffers from diseases with abnormal chromosome number, including the common 21- Trisomy (Down syndrome), Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) and Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome).

H7N9 is a new type of reassortant avian influenza virus discovered by scientists through gene sequencing and other technical means. In recent years, gene sequencing has entered the clinic from the laboratory, and has even gradually become a hot topic in the global medical community. One of the most important reasons is the "celebrity effect". Apple used gene sequencing to prevent cancer, and for this reason, it removed its breasts preventively. Although Jobs still died of cancer, the whole gene sequencing he received before his death has become a high-end medical examination service sought after by rich people in many countries.

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