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Microbiome Sequencing

Microbiome Sequencing CapitalBio

Microorganism exists in the human body, plant, soil, sea, and other environments. The collection of all microorganism species and their genetic information and function is named as the microbiome. At present, the microbiome has been widely applied to medical research, agricultural breeding, food processing, environmental treatment, and other fields. In the field of medical research, the microbiome is named as "Second Genome of the Human Body". Especially, intestinal microflora plays a greatly important role in maintaining and playing the physiological functions of the host, is closely linked with human health, and becomes a research hotspot in recent years.

Microbiome Sequencing Application

  • Medicine  The relationship between composition and function of microflora and disease (such as diabetes, obesity, hypertensiony; microbiall medicine (intestinal tract, stomach, all cavities)

  • Agriculture  Different microflora structures will affect plant growth,plantpathogenic bacteria, microbial control (soill, root system, endomycorrhiza)

  • Animal Husbandry The difference in microorganism species and function (rumen,intestinal tract) under different nutrition condition or immunity levels

  • Environmental Treatment  Micro-ecological changes (waste water, sludge) during environmental treatment

  • lndustry  Microflora ad function changes(distillers' grains, yogurt, cultured microflora) during fermentation

  • Biollogical Energy  Microorganism composition and function (activated sludge, marine microorganism) in renewable biological resources

Difference Between 16s/18s/its And Shotgun Metagenomics Sequencing

  • Targeted vs. Comprehensive Analysis: The 16S (for bacteria) and 18S (for eukaryotes) rRNA gene sequencing, along with ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) sequencing, are targeted approaches that focus on specific regions of the genome to identify and classify microorganisms. In contrast, Shotgun Metagenomics Sequencing provides a comprehensive analysis, sequencing all the DNA present in a sample, which allows for the identification of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms without prior knowledge of their presence.

  • Resolution and Diversity: 16S 18S ITS sequencing can accurately classify microorganisms at the genus or species level, depending on the microbial community’s complexity and the targeted region’s variability. Shotgun Metagenomics Sequencing, however, can potentially offer higher resolution down to the strain level and uncover a broader diversity of microorganisms, including those not detectable by targeted methods.

  • Functional Insights: While 16S, 18S, and ITS sequencing are excellent for identifying which microorganisms are present, Shotgun Metagenomics Sequencing goes a step further by providing insights into the functional potential of the microbial community. This means it can reveal what genes are present and infer the metabolic pathways and resistance genes, offering a deeper understanding of microbial functions and interactions.

  • Data Complexity and Analysis: Shotgun Sequencing Metagenomics generates a vast amount of data, covering the entire genomic content of a sample, which requires more substantial computational resources and more complex bioinformatics analyses compared to the targeted sequencing of 16S, 18S, and ITS. This means that while Shotgun Metagenomics offers a more detailed view, it also demands more in terms of data handling and interpretation.

  • Application-Specific Suitability: The choice between these methods depends on the study’s goals. For studies focused on microbial identification and diversity, 16S, 18S, and ITS sequencing might suffice. However, for comprehensive analysis that requires understanding the functional capabilities of a microbial community, Shotgun Sequencing Metagenomics is more appropriate.

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