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Introduction and Application of Microarray Chip

Introduction and Application of Microarray Chip

1. Definition of Microarray Chip

Microarray chip refers to the use of light-guided in-situ synthesis or micro-spotting methods to solidify a large number of biological macromolecules such as nucleic acid fragments, polypeptide molecules and even biological samples such as tissue sections and cells on supports (such as glass slides, nylon membranes) in an orderly manner. The surface of the carrier) is composed of dense two-dimensional molecular arrangements, and then reacts with the target molecules in the labeled biological sample to be tested, and the intensity of the response signal is measured by specific instruments, such as a laser confocal scanner or a charge-coupled camera. Perform fast, parallel, and efficient detection and analysis to determine the number of target molecules in a sample.

2. Microarray chip application process

(1) Preparation of targets

Extract and label nucleotides from biological specimens;

(2) Hybridization

Incubate the target with the cDNA or oligonucleotide sequence on the chip;

(3) Get data

Scan the signal intensity exhibited by the target hybridized to the probe

(4) Data analysis

Draw biologically meaningful conclusions from large amounts of data

Microarray chip technology reflects the transcription of the gene expressing this mRNA by measuring the number of mRNA that can hybridize with the probe. The construction of the chip should first select the gene and the corresponding probe according to the needs of the research, and then extract the mRNA from the sample. , and prepare the target point, then add the target point to the chip, carry out the operations of incubation hybridization, washing out the unhybridized samples and scanning, etc., to obtain the original data, and then standardize and statistically analyze these data to get the conclusion, and construct an appropriate microarray. The array chip is the basis for the follow-up research.

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