According to the World Health Organization's "Global Tuberculosis Report 2022", in 2021, there were an estimated 10.6 million new tuberculosis cases worldwide. From 2019 to 2021, the number of deaths due to tuberculosis increased, breaking the trend of a year-by-year decrease seen from 2005 to 2019. In 2021, there were 1.6 million deaths from tuberculosis, including 187,000 cases of TB/HIV co-infection.
What type of infectious disease is tuberculosis?
The culprit that causes tuberculosis is a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has strong infectivity and pathogenicity. According to the "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases," infectious diseases are classified as Class A, Class B, and Class C.
Class A infectious diseases, also known as mandatory management infectious diseases, include plague and cholera.
Class B infectious diseases, also known as strictly managed infectious diseases, encompass 27 infectious diseases, including COVID-19, tuberculosis, AIDS, viral hepatitis, and others. Strict prevention and control measures are to be followed for these diseases in accordance with relevant regulations and prevention plans.
Class C infectious diseases, also known as monitored management infectious diseases, include 11 infectious diseases such as seasonal influenza, epidemic mumps, and hand, foot, and mouth disease.
Tuberculosis is classified as a Class B infectious disease.
What are the hazards of tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis poses a significant threat to individual health. If tuberculosis patients are not promptly identified or if treatment is not comprehensive, the tubercular lesions in the lungs will not self-heal. Instead, they may worsen, spread, and lead to prolonged illness, cavity formation, and fibrosis, causing severe damage to lung tissues and lung function.
The respiratory transmission mode presents a severe public health threat. Infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patients can release respiratory droplets containing tuberculosis bacteria into the air when they cough, sneeze, or speak loudly, potentially infecting those nearby who inhale these infectious droplets.
Individuals who live with or work and study near tuberculosis patients are considered close contacts and may be at risk of tuberculosis infection. They should seek medical evaluation to rule out infection promptly.
High-risk groups, including HIV-infected individuals, those with weakened immune systems, diabetes patients, silicosis patients, and the elderly, are more susceptible to tuberculosis and should undergo regular screenings annually.
Respiratory transmission significantly increases the risk of tuberculosis transmission. An untreated infectious pulmonary tuberculosis patient can potentially infect around 10-15 people annually.
Compared to regular tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis significantly lowers the cure rate.
In addition to regular pulmonary tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis is becoming increasingly common. Drug-resistant tuberculosis is the tuberculosis bacteria developing resistance to one or more tuberculosis drugs. In other words, these drugs are no longer effective, causing severe bodily harm and, in some cases, a high mortality risk.
According to a 2022 report from the World Health Organization, the number of patients with rifampicin-resistant and multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis decreased between 2019 and 2020. In 2021, the number of patients receiving treatment was 161,746, representing only one-third of the patients who needed treatment. The global success rate for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis remains very low, at only 60%.
The low cure rate for drug-resistant tuberculosis is due to a lack of effective drugs and a close association with non-compliant or incomplete treatment. Therefore, it is crucial to seek timely and regular therapy upon diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Innovative Treatment Approaches：Providing Powerful Tools for Tuberculosis Control
CapitalBio Technology leverages its chip platform advantage to build a tuberculosis diagnosis and control system and introduce precise tuberculosis diagnosis solutions.
Mycobacteria Real-time PCR Detection Kit
The kit can simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria nucleic acids. The entire detection process is simple and fast, taking only 3 hours. It simultaneously distinguishes between tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria, preventing misdiagnosis and missed cases of non-tuberculous infections with symptoms similar to tuberculosis.
Mycobacteria Identification Array Kit
The kit can simultaneously identify 17 species of mycobacteria, including tuberculosis. Different mycobacteria have specific drug resistance profiles. This rapid identification tailored to the particular species, preventing ineffective chemotherapy and delays in treatment.
M. tuberculosis Drug Resistance Detection Array Kit
The kit simultaneously detects resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to two anti-tuberculosis drugs, rifampicin and isoniazid, in the sample. Results are available within 6 hours, allowing real-time monitoring of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and preventing ineffective chemotherapy. It can also identify specific mutation sites.
When used together, these three products encompass rapid tuberculosis screening, mycobacterial species identification, and rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. They constitute a comprehensive molecular diagnostic system for tuberculosis. This system provides complete coverage for tuberculosis diagnosis and drug selection, enabling accurate molecular monitoring throughout tuberculosis.
The treatment principles for pulmonary tuberculosis are early, comprehensive, combination, regular, and appropriate.
It requires even more attention and focus to truly make tuberculosis a thing of the past and overcome drug-resistant tuberculosis.
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